Impacts of climate change and sustainable development

The link between climate change and sustainable development derives from the idea that climate change is a constraint to development and as a result sustainable development is the key to capacities for mitigation and adaptation. This means that the strategies for dealing with sustainable development and climate change have common elements such that applying them together creates interactions (Yeung, 2000).

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It is through Farming that most Africans get their source of income.Picture obtained from WWF’S earth Hour

Furthermore, developing countries with poor economies, weak socio-economic structures and misguided agricultural policies fall victims of the climatic phenomena known as El Niño.  The droughts and floods which were caused by the El Niño cycle in 1982-83 led to a fall in gross consequences on the economy and health care. Populations in the southern regions of the world are more vulnerable to floods and deforestation than industrialized nations and as a result the severity of natural disasters such as hurricanes, droughts, and floods appear to be increasing as global warming increases. For instance, China has been hit by increased flooding in recent years and in 1998 more than 3,000 people died and four million were rendered homeless due to floods (Foley, 2014).

People and the ecosystems in Africa are currently under threat from deforestation, land degradation and heavy dependence on biomass for energy. In sub-Saharan Africa over 80 percent of the population depends on traditional biomass for cooking. Therefore, climate change is likely to be an additional stress factor. The key vulnerable sectors include agriculture, food and water. Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to suffer the most not only in terms of reduced agricultural productivity and increased water insecurity, but also in increased exposure to coastal flooding and extreme climatic events, and increased risks to human health.

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We have to think critically about sustainable development. Picture obtained from- Tide Global learning

Sustainable development in Africa cannot be addressed effectively without accounting for the impacts of climate change on agriculture, conflicts and disease patterns all of which have particular impact on the poor. In facing the challenges of climate change, the priorities for African countries are

  • Achieving high political recognition for Africa on the platform of international negotiations.
  • Allocating resources appropriately ensuring food and energy security.
  • Managing and adapting to long-term climate risk.

However, these goals require good governance; access to technology; investment in innovation; the involvement and commitment of all segments of society; and international, national and regional cooperation.

Climate change is also shifting climate zones such that traditional farming areas are being lost because agriculture cannot adapt rapidly enough to the new conditions. Therefore the traditional farming knowledge which were passed down from one generation to the next have become irrelevant as the annual rains come at different times with different volumes of rainfall changes which are no longer predictable (Peng, Chen, and Cheng Y. (No date).

Natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods and storms have the ability to destroy fields and crops such that productivity on small farms becomes curtailed for many years. The effect of this is that it limits the ability for farmers to grow enough food for themselves and for the rest of the population because natural disaster can lead to an economic crisis as it causes a drop in income in urban regions.

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Income inequality in Africa

Income inequality refers to the extent to which income is distributed in an uneven manner among a population. Income inequality affects people’s quality of life leading to higher incidences of poverty and so impeding progress in health and education and contributing to crime.

High income inequality has the potential to threaten a country’s political stability because the more people are dissatisfied with their economic status the more it is hard to reach political consensus among population groups with higher and lower incomes. Political instability also increases the risks of investing in a country which in turn undermines a country’s development potential  [Achankeng, 2003].

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This is how some women are still living in some parts of Africa. Picture obtained from VOA NEWS

Furthermore, high income inequality limits the use of important market instruments suchas changes in prices and fines. For instance higher rates for electricity and hot water might promote energy efficiency although increasing inequality because a government introducing higher rates on electricity might cause extreme deprivation among the poorest citizens.

High inequality also discourages certain basic norms of behaviour among economic agents (individuals or enterprises) such as trust and commitment. Higher business risks and higher costs of contract enforcement impede economic growth by slowing down all economic transactions. These are among the reasons some international experts recommend decreasing income inequality in developing countries to help accelerate economic and human development.[Aldred,2013].

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The level of inequality is on the rise. Picture obtained from VOA news

The rich and the poor have long lived side by side, but the current radical levels of economic inequality experienced in many high-, middle- and low-income countries endanger economic development, stability and societal progress. The expiry of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015 and discussions regarding new goals has provided an opportunity to use the growing concern about economic disparities to legitimately place inequality on the development agenda and demand action.

You can read the full story on inequality in Africa

You can read the story on Africa’s inequality rising

 

 

 

The clash of Civilization in today’s world

International relations forms a socio-cultural field that defines world culture, wealth, power, prestige and classes because its medium consists of international meanings, values, and norms. International relations thus allows states and trans-nationally related groups and individuals for interact and talk about global issues based on generated interests (Barker, 2013).

Furthermore, the formation of a solitary global economy through globalization has enabled religion resume its place in global politics while addressing the role of cultural and religious differences (Chiozza, 2002). However, despite bringing interconnectedness among people, Islamic fundamentalism has emerged over the years through a brand of globalized cultural terrorism posing a threat to international peace and stability. Since the late 1970s, there have been debates about the impossibility of different sets of values, norms and beliefs living side-by-side in an increasingly globalized world (Huntington, No Date).

One would agree that Samuel Huntington was right

The recent events in international political affairs and the increasing role of religion in international relations are related to the reinforcement of Islam among Muslims.  This is because the 1950s to now the Muslim world has grown to include countries such as Syria, Somalia, Sudan, Egypt, Bosnia, Nigeria, Jordan, Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The expansion of Islam over the years has made Islam one of the major religions influencing international relations (Johnson, No date).

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Why is civilisation fighting each other. Picture obtained from EACPE Video contest

Therefore, world politics has entered a new phase with the return of traditional rivalries between nation states due to conflicting issues associated with tribalism and globalism. Thus the conflict between civilizations is the latest phase in the evolution of conflict in the modern world following the emergence of the modern international system with the Peace of Westphalia (Neumayer and Plumer, 2009).

The importance of Human Rights

Today I am going to talk about Human Rights violation in the world and the importance of respecting and protecting the rights of people. Human Rights are important for a stable global community and as a result people should be protected against vices such as human trafficking, sexual abuse and torture. When we look at today’s world, children and women are the most victims of human Rights violation due to the idea that they cannot protect themselves from their predictors (Aljazeera, 2016). However, this is does not mean men’s are also not violated because as Nelson Mandela once said, to deny people their rights is to challenge their humanity. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every human being to respect and treat one another with the same kind of love and respect they would want to be given.

I bet most of you agree with me that in any democratic country, people should be given the right to choose a leader of their own choice and should not be beaten not punished for sharing different views from those in power. After all no cause should justify the abuse of human rights.

Video obtained from ADRA International 

The attention given to Human Rights is based on the idea that Human Rights should exist beyond the determination of specific societies and as a result Human Rights set universal standards that are used to judge societies. Human Rights also provide acceptable bench marks on which individuals or governments from one part of the world may criticize the norms followed by other governments or cultures (Gummow, 2013).

The violence against women constitutes of violence found within the household  which may include, marital rape or rape within a relationship were both partners don’t share  the same views. In addition to this other sexual abuse include sexual harassment at work, trafficking in women and girls with intention of fulfilling sexual needs are urges. With this regard women or young girls are forced exploitation, forced prostitution, abortion of female fetuses and infanticide of baby girls, traditional practices harmful to women such as genital mutilation, forced or too early marriage, widow burning, honour killing, acid attacks, stoning, war rape, and other.

 

Economic hardships will continue as long as Zambians do not unite

Each day that goes by, the cost of living in Zambia keeps getting hard such that basic needs such as shelter, food and clothing prices keep going up. The once beautiful peaceful country is now filled with bloodshed. Most people earn between k1500-2500 a month and this salary has to be divided between food, clothing and housing. Furthermore, there are also school fees involved, electricity as well as water bills. People have now opted to use charcoal for cooking because electricity is expensive, however, this causes deforestation.

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People keep cutting trees in Manyoonyo Mazabuka while causing deforestation. Photograph By Mulumbwa Luchen

The cost of renting a decent house costs about k1500-2500 which is someone’s salary. Furthermore, there are also medical bills involved because most government hospitals do not have the required equipment as well as personnel to conduct Gastric Bypass surgery on obese patients for instance. The patients are forced to see medical attention in other countries such as India and South Africa and such surgeries require huge sums of money, not only for hospital expenses but also traveling expenses as well as accommodation, transport, to and from the airport to the hospital.

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People prefer using a charcoal than paying for electricity. Photograph By Mulumbwa Luchen

However, in the midst of all these economic problems, most people seem to overlook the hardships they encounter and find themselves fighting each other over who belongs to which party and who supports the opposition. The, news yesterday broadcasted the death of a United Party for National Development member who was shot for attending a UPND rally. The woman lost her life and the most loss that will be felt comes from the bereaving family because once the elections end, she will only be remembered as a person that lost her life due to political violence. Why can’t people see that political violence does not only hurt but also destroys peace and unity. We are one Zambia one nation and it is in times like this that people unite in order to choose a president that will help alleviate poverty, hunger, health problems and bring development. Whether PF or UPND, no one has the right to victimize the other and force him/she to vote for a president they do not believe in.

We fight each other for belonging to different political parties but at the end of the day, the people we fight for go back to their comfortable places while we continue staying in poverty. It is time to condemn political violence and stop the bloodshed of innocent people.

Political violence undermining freedom of expression in Zambia

The recent political violence in Zambia undermines the freedom and democracy that our fore fathers strongly fought for. Cadres from different political parties are fighting each other on an everyday basis and beating each other and killing for having affiliated with different party presidents. What does this mean for democracy and Zambia as a whole that was once known as a peaceful country? These days one cannot walk freely while wearing a UPND or PF symbol without being beaten, harassed or killed.

The political violence happening should be stopped and people should instead come together and cooperate in order to find solutions to the current economic situation affecting the economy. For instance food prices have gone up, civil servants are not getting paid in time, health facilities are difficult to access especially in rural areas and farmers are not getting their input in time. The effect of the economic crisis is that more people will continue experiencing more poverty in a country were still struggle to afford basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing.

Since when did Zambia become a violent country, since when did people have to beat each other to prove their loyalty to a political party. Everyday social media and the news are broadcast the blood shed that is perpetrating the ten provinces of Zambia instead of broadcasting the problems that the people of Zambia are going through.  Each political party is blaming the other for what is happening rather than taking responsibility for their cadre’s actions. One would say there is a breakdown of order and lawlessness in this beloved country but let’s wait for August 11 and see scopes the seat and becomes Zambia’s eights president.

The Human Rights of people are not considered because huge sums of money are spent on elections and by-elections instead of diverting that money into developing the country. How is it possible that there is not money to pay civil servants in time but there is money to print ballot papers and campaigns? These are the things that people of Zambia need to ask instead of killing each other for affiliating with the ruling party or the opposition.  Your vote is your secret and no one should force you to vote for someone you do not believe in because voting is your right.

Let us save planet earth

Global warming is genuine and is created by human action through the blazing of fossil fills that pump carbon dioxide and methane and into the climate. In this way, worldwide environmental change does influence individuals as well as the earth we live in. Thus, a dangerous atmospheric deviation has crushing outcomes on the planet and we have to do everything we can to attempt and spare our valuable planet.

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why are we destroying our precious planet. photograph obtained from Google.com

Worldwide environmental change does affect the biological systems as well as economies and groups. Subsequently because of expanding temperature, a few regions on the planet encounter more warmth, flooding, dry season and serious summer while different districts stay cooler or more frosty. It is subsequently imperative for individuals to think about worldwide environmental change so they can take activities to decrease the nursery gas emanations that are creating environmental change and spare planet earth.

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climate change could have positive effects on our crops. photograph obtained from Google.com

Since environmental change is as of now taking its toll on the planet, Farmers should be outfitted with all the data accessible to empower them get ready for environmental change by planting crops amid various times of the year, or by planting trims that can survive better in hot and dry conditions.

Similarly heat waves, air pollution, and diseases are all linked to climate such that they could threaten people’s health in many areas of the world.  People who are poor, very young and elderly, or disabled, or those who live in coastal areas or big cities are mostly at risk.

Individuals with asthma are for the most part defenseless because of certain air contamination like ozone which can make asthma and other lung conditions more terrible. Ozone discovered high in the air is called “great ozone” since it shields life on Earth from the sun’s hurtful bright beams. Ozone can likewise be discovered near the surface of the Earth, where it is viewed as “terrible ozone” since it’s the principle element of exhaust cloud and is unsafe for individuals to relax. Awful ozone is made from toxins that experience substance responses in the air. Environmental change is prone to expand the measure of awful ozone noticeable all around in light of the fact that more ozone is made when the temperature is warm.

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some of the effects of air pollution. photograph obtained from Google.com

Climate change might allow some infectious diseases to spread. As winter temperatures increase, ticks and mosquitoes that carry diseases can survive longer throughout the year and expand their ranges, putting more people at risk. One big concern is malaria, a deadly disease spread by mosquitoes in many hot, humid parts of the world

Backwoods give homes to numerous sorts of plants and creatures. They likewise ensure water quality, offer open doors for diversion, and furnish individuals with wood. Backwoods are touchy to numerous impacts of environmental change, including moving climate designs, dry spell, out of control fires, and the spread of bugs like the mountain pine insect. Not at all like a few creatures, trees can’t simply get up and move when the temperature gets excessively hot or different conditions change.

Rapidly spreading fires are as of now normal in the timberland and fields of the western United States. As the Earth gets hotter and dry seasons build, out of control fires are required to happen all the more regularly and be more dangerous. Fierce blazes do happen actually, however the to a great degree dry conditions coming about because of dry seasons permit flames to begin all the more effortlessly, spread speedier, and smolder longer. Actually, if the Earth gets only 3.6°F hotter, we can expect rapidly spreading fires in the western United States to smolder four times more land than they do now. Flames don’t simply change the scene; they additionally undermine individuals’ homes and lives.

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Even the animals are feeling what global climate change is. photography obtained from Google.com

As the atmosphere keeps on changing, individuals will need to get ready for the danger of expanding fierce blazes by turning out to be more mindful of the peril, taking additional safety measures to counteract fires, not working in flame inclined territories, and being prepared to oversee fires when they do happen.

Environmental change is influencing where, when, and how much water is accessible for individuals to utilize. Numerous parts of the world as of now have almost no water, and environmental change could aggravate this issue. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation designs, and expanding dry seasons will influence the measure of water in lakes, waterways, and streams, and in addition the measure of water that saturates the ground to recharge ground water.

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why should people be drinking dirty water photo obtained from Google.com

As environmental change proceeds with, individuals may need to get ready for water deficiencies by utilizing less water. Numerous spots depend on snow melt to fill the lakes, waterways, and streams that continue drinking water supplies full and give water to inundate crops.